SUMMARY: The Copyright Alliance filed an amicus brief in support of plaintiff-appellant AMA Multimedia, arguing that the Ninth Circuit should grant a rehearing and reverse the court's decision that the defendant does not have sufficient forum contacts to be subject to personal jurisdiction in the United States. The brief asserts that the court erred in disregarding important forum contacts, including the fact that Americans account for the largest amount of visitors to the website and that Wanat deliberately exploits the American marketplace by deriving revenue from advertisements targeted at American website visitors. Additionally, the brief explains that if allowed to stand, the decision threatens to undermine copyright enforcement in the U.S. by creating a dangerous loophole that foreign infringers will exploit.
SUMMARY: The Copyright Alliance filed an amicus brief in support of plaintiff-appellant, arguing that the Ninth Circuit should reverse a district court’s dismissal of copyright infringement claims against a foreign website and its operators for lack of personal jurisdiction. The brief asserts that the district court erred in disregarding important forum contacts and that if it were not for the widespread availability of VNG’s app and website throughout the United States, Lang Van would not have an infringement claim to make against VNG. Additionally, the brief explains that if allowed to stand, the decision threatens to undermine copyright enforcement in the U.S.
SUMMARY: The Copyright Alliance filed an amicus brief arguing that the Federal Circuit properly analyzed copyright protection for the interfaces at issue and correctly held that Google’s use of Oracle’s interfaces was not transformative. Additionally, the brief argues more generally that courts should not allow the concept of “transformative use” to swallow a copyright owner’s exclusive rights and that adopting Google's fair use reasoning would be harmful to individual creators, small businesses, and developing industries.
SUMMARY: The Copyright Act protects statutory annotations as creative works and allows states to own the copyright in these annotations, which are intrinsically valuable to the public. The Copyright Alliance filed here to explain that reversing the Eleventh Circuit would further the goals of the Copyright Act by reinforcing the value of copyright and incentivizing authors to create scholarly works for the public good. If left to stand, the decision would not permit greater public access to the legal scholarship, but would only serve to benefit free-riders who seek to capitalize off of other’s creative authorship and undermine the integrity of the annotations.
SUMMARY: Congress enacted the Copyright Remedy Clarification Act in 1990 to ensure that copyright owners could protect their work from infringement against States and State entities. The Copyright Alliance filed a brief with the Supreme Court urging it to reverse a Fourth Circuit decision that held that the CRCA did not validly abrogate state sovereign immunity.
SUMMARY: ComicMix sought to sell a book titled “Oh the Places You’ll Boldly Go!” which used copyrighted elements from Dr. Seuss’s “Oh the Places You’ll Go!” and mixed them with copyrighted elements from the television franchise Star Trek. Dr. Seuss alleged the work infringed its copyrights, but applying an incorrect legal standard and misconstruing the nature of the relevant markets and harms, the district court erroneously found that ComicMix’s “slavish copy[ing]” of Go! was a fair use.
SUMMARY: Copyright Alliance members have a strong interest in ensuring that courts ruling on infringement cases apply procedural rules and evidentiary burdens that do not impede creators and copyright holders in bringing meritorious claims. The defense of a license to a copyright is an affirmative defense. Once a plaintiff in a copyright infringement action has made out a prima facie case for infringement, the burden shifts to the defendant to prove that the copying was authorized by a license or other authorization. And because direct evidence of illicit copying is often in the possession of an infringing defendant, courts routinely permit plaintiffs in copyright actions to show copying in particular instances through circumstantial evidence.
The Copyright Alliance filed an amicus brief with the Ninth Circuit urging it to reverse a district court decision that departed from these well-established principles by making the plaintiff prove the absence of a license and by establishing a new evidentiary standard for proof of copying.
SUMMARY: Record labels filed a copyright infringement suit against the operator of two popular “stream ripping” sites based out of Russia. The labels allege the sites “quickly and seamlessly capture the audio tracks contained in videos streamed from YouTube” that users access, “convert those audio tracks to an MP3”, “copy and store the audio files”, “and then distribute copies of those files from their servers to users in the United States”–all without authorization from the copyright owners (and in violation of YouTube’s own terms of service). Labels allege this conduct amounts to direct and indirect infringement.
A district court granted defendant’s motion to dismiss based on lack of personal jurisdiction, holding that the sites “are semi-interactive, the interactions with the users are non-commercial, and there were no other acts by the Defendant that would demonstrate purposeful targeting” of the forum specifically or the United States generally.
The record labels have appealed that decision to the Fourth Circuit, arguing that the district court erred because the sites had a large U.S. customer base that it purposefully targeted and profited from, and it had multiple and sustained contacts with both the forum and the U.S.
SUMMARY: The Copyright Alliance filed an amicus brief arguing that §505 of the Copyright Act does not limit what costs a court may award to a prevailing party in a copyright infringement case. Allowing recovery of full costs aids copyright owners in protecting their rights through litigation, particularly in circumstances where the primary relief sought is injunctive and therefore no significant monetary recovery is expected to offset the costs.
United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit
SUMMARY: The Copyright Alliance filed an amicus brief in support plaintiff-appellant Russell Brammer arguing that the district court misapplied the fair use factors, including by incorrectly characterizing the use as transformative and noncommercial, and failing to consider the market harm to Brammer, and creators in general, that would result from widespread unauthorized copying.
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